What is Bulk,Submerged,Dry and Saturated Density & Density of Solids of Soil - Civil Engineering

## Density

The density or unit weight of a soil mass is defined as its weight per unit volume .

### a. What is Bulk Density (𝛾)

The bulk density or moist density 𝛾 is defined as the total weight (W) as a soil mass per unit of its total volume (V).
Thus, 𝛾 =W/V

### b.What is Submerged Density (𝛾sub)

The submerged density or buoyant unit weight is defined as the submerged  weight (Wd)sub of the soil solids per unit of total volume (V) of the soil mass.
Thus, 𝛾sub =(Wd)sub / V
It is also expressed as, 𝛾sub 𝛾sat 𝛾w
Where, 𝛾is the density of water and 𝛾sat is the saturated density of soil .

### c. What is Dry Density (𝛾d)

The dry density or dry unit weight 𝛾d is defined as the weight of solids (Wd) per unit of total volume (V) of the soil mass.
Thus, 𝛾d = Wd / V

### d. What is Saturated Density (𝛾sat)

When the soil mass is saturated, its bulk density is called the saturated density. Thus saturated density is the ratio of the total weight of a saturated soil sample (Wsat) to its total volume (V).                                       Thus, 𝛾sat Wsat V

### e. What is Density of Solids (𝛾s)

The density or unit weight of soil solids Is the weight of soil solids (Wd) per unit volume of the solids (Vs).
Thus, 𝛾s = Wd /Vs