Monday, 9 July 2018

Types Of Sewer According To Material And Place of Use

Sewer are classified as follow:

1) According to place of use sewer are classified as follow:-

a)Main sewer , b)Branch or sub-main sewer , c)Lateral sewer , d)Combined sewer , e)Depressed sewer , f)Intercepting sewer , g)Out fall sewer , h)Trunk sewer , i)Relief or overflow sewer.

2)According to material used sewer are classified as follow:-

a)Asbestos cement sewer , b)Brick sewer , c)Cast Iron sewer , d)Cement concrete sewer , e) Plastic sewer , f)Stoneware sewer , g)Corrugated iron sewer , h) Steel sewer , i)Wood sewer , j)Lead sewer.

1.According to Place of use

a) Main sewer

The sewer which obtains its discharge from a few branch or sub-main sewers is termed as main sewer.

b) Branch or sub-main sewer

The sewer which obtains its discharge from a few laterals and delivers it to main sewer is termed as branch or sub-main sewer. 

c) Lateral sewer

The sewer which obtains its discharge directly from buildings is known as lateral sewer. 

d) Combined sewer

The sewer which carries sewage and storm water is known as combined sewer

e) Depressed sewer

When an obstruction is met, the sewer is constructed lower than the adjacent sections to overcome the obstruction. Such a section of sewer is termed as depressed sewer.

f) Intercepting sewer

The sewer which obtains the discharge from a number of main or outfall sewer and carries the same to the point of treatment and disposal is termed as intercepting sewer.

g) Out fall sewer 

The length of main or trunk sewer between the connection of lowest branch and final point of disposal is termed as outfall sewer.

h) Trunk sewer

The sewer which obtains its discharge from two or more main sewers is known as trunk sewer. 

i) Relief or overflow sewer

The sewer which carries the excess discharge from an existing sewer is known as relief or overflow sewer.  

2) According to material used

a) Asbestos cement sewer

These are manufactured from mixture of cement and asbestos fibers. These pipes are normally available in sizes from 5 cm to 90 cm in diameter and 4 in length. These pipes are suitable for domestic sanitary fittings. 

b) Brick sewer (Masonry sewer)

Bricks are used for constructing large size sewers. These sewers are plastered outside and lined inside with stoneware or ceramic blocks. 

These sewers are used at places where the sewers are required to be constructed at site. They are also preferred for constructing large sized combined sewer or for storm water drain. The sewer section is always rectangular in section. 

c) Cast Iron sewer 

The Cast iron sewer possesses high strength and durability. These are highly resistant to corrosion and have long life. But these are very heavy and difficult to handle. These sewers are used under the following condition:

1. When the sewage is conveyed under high pressure .
2. When the sewer line is to be laid in exposed position or in suspension.
3. When sewers are to be laid below heavy traffic loads.

d) Cement concrete sewer

These pipes are manufactured using cement concrete with or without reinforcement. They may be pre-cast or cast-in-situ. The pre-cast R.C.C pipes are known as hume pipes. 

The diameter of plain cement concrete pipes may be up to 60 cm. The hume pipes are available up to 250 cm in diameter. The length of pipe varies from 1 to 3 m.These pipes are most suitable for combined sewer and storm water Sewer.  

e) Plastic sewer 

The plastic pipes are used for carrying industrial sewage and in domestic sanitary fittings. These are highly resistant to corrosion and light in weight. These pipes may be available in diameter varying from 5 cm to 15 cm and of longer length. 

f) Stoneware sewer

These pipes are manufactured from vitrified clay by molding and burning. The diameter of these pipes varies from 10 to 90 cm. These pipes are joined by bell and spigot joint. 

These pipes offer high resistant to sulphide corrosion. Their interiors are very smooth and they are hydraulically very efficient. These pipes are widely used in domestic sanitary fittings and for laterals.