Door & Window ,Size,Types, and Technical term used in connection - Civil Engineering

Wednesday, 28 March 2018

Door & Window ,Size,Types, and Technical term used in connection


Door is a frame-work of timber ,steel,glass or combination of these materials .It serves as a connecting link between various parts in a building. It provides access the users of the unit.


Window is a frame work of timber,steel,glass or combination of these materials.It provides light and ventilation to the interior of the building.

Size of doors and window 

Height of door is approximately taken equal to width of door plus 1.2 m. In India, door height of 2 m is considered most suitable. Minimum height of door is 1.8 m. 
Width of door is approximately taken equal to 0.4 to 0.6 times of height of door. Width of door generally varies from 0.8 m to 1.2 m. The maximum width of door is generally taken 3 m.

Height of window is generally kept 1.1 m to 1.2 m.Width f window is generally kept 0.9 m to 2 m.

Technical terms used in connection with doors and windows:-

1) Frame:-  A door frame consists of two vertical members called jambs and a horizontal member called head provided at the top.

A window frame consists of two of more vertical member called jambs and two horizontal members provided at top and bottom. The top horizontal member is called head and the bottom horizontal member is called sill.

2) Hold fast:-  It is generally made from mild steel. Holdfasts are provided on each sides f the door and window frame. They keep the frame in position.

3) Horn:-  This is a horizontal projection of head or sill beyond the face of the frame. They keep the frame in position.

4) Rebate:-  The depression made inside the frame to receive the shutter is called Rebate.

5)Transom:- It is the horizontal member used to divide a window frame. 

6) Shutter:-  The entire assembly of styles, panels and rails is known as shutter. Shutters are provided inside the door or window frame.

7) Style:-  Out side vertical members of a shutter are known as styles. 

8) Top rail:-  The top most horizontal member of shutter is known as top rail. 

9) Bottom rail:-  The lower most horizontal member of a shutter is known as bottom rail. 

10) Lock rail:-  This is the middle horizontal member of a shutter where locking arrangement is provided. 

11) Frieze rail:-  The rail which is provided between the top rail and lock rail is called frieze rail. 

12) Mullion or Munting:-  The vertical member running through a shutter and sub-dividing the shutter vertically is called mullion.  

13) Panel:-  The area enclosed between the vertical styles and horizontal rails is known as panel.

14) Sash or glazing bar:-  It is a special type of frame made of light section and designed to carry glass fitted in a shutter.

15)Louver:-  It is an inclined piece timber fixed within a frame. Louvers are provided in window where vision is required to be prevented without affecting the ventilation system. 

16) Putty:-  It is a mixture of whiting chalk and linseed oil. is used for fixing the glass panels.

Types of door

The common types of doors used in buildings are as follows:
1) Battened and ledged doors. 
2) Battened, ledged and braced doors. 
3) Battened, ledged and framed doors. 
4) Battened, framed and braced doors. 
5) Framed and paneled doors. 
6) Glazed or sash doors. 
7) Sliding doors. 
8) Flush doors.
9) Collapsible doors. 
10) Revolving doors. 
11) Swing doors. 
12) Rolling steel doors. 
13) Louvered doors.

uses of few types of doors at specific locations

Types of Window

The common types f windows used in building are as follows:
1)Casement or ordinary window.
2)Glazed or sash windows.
3)Louvered window.
4)Pivoted window.
5)Corner window.
6)Metal window.
7)Double hung windows.
8)Gable windows.
9)Dormer window.
10)Bay window.
11)Clerestorey window.
12)Lanterns or lantern lights.
13)Sky light.
14)Sliding window.
15)Circular window. 

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